Notes on Training in Team Sports: Coadjuvant Training in the FCB

by Antonio Gómez, Eric Roqueta, Joan Ramon Tarragó, Francisco Seirul·lo, and Francesc Cos

Structured training is comprised of two types of training: optimiser training and coadjuvant training (Gómez et al., 13-14).

Optimiser training (OT) is “training concerned with the planning, design, execution and control of training tasks and whose purpose is to optimise the athlete’s performance in all the competitions in which they take part in the course of their athletic lifetime” (Gómez et al., 13).

Coadjuvant training (CT) is training that “comprises all the factors which allow athletes to reach and maintain a state of health that enables them to perform the tasks proposed by OT on a daily basis” (Gómez et al., 14).

CT is sometimes regarded as not having a direct effect on athletic performance, which is widely regarded as false (Gómez et al., 14). CT is used to “identify and even out” the demands placed upon an individual in order to achieve a maximized potential for the given athlete (Gómez et al., 14).

CT is divided into 4 “constituent systems” (Gómez et al., 15). These are as follows:

  • Preventive CT
  • Recovery CT
  • Structural CT
  • Specific-quality CT (Gómez et al., 15)

Preventive CT is aimed at achieving balance, predisposing important muscle groups to development, enabling adaptations of the stabilizer muscles, altering muscles and tendons to the demands placed upon them by high-intensity activities, and increasing the efficacy of coordination abilities (Gómez et al., 15-16).

There are two types of preventive CT — primary or group preventive CT and secondary or individual preventive CT (Gómez et al., 16). Primary preventive CT is used within a team or group to prevent injury in the sport or specialty of the individuals (Gómez et al., 16). Secondary preventive CT is designed around an individual’s medical history for the sake of avoiding possible injury (Gómez et al., 16).

Recovery CT is intended to maximize the efficiency of recovery after intense training sessions in a sport (Gómez et al., 16). This form of CT should be designed and performed based upon the recommendations of physiotherapists, psychologists, nutritionists, doctors, and other specialty consultants (Gómez et al., 16). The objective of this form of CT is to completely recover to pre-training or competition bioenergetic values (Gómez et al., 17).

Structural CT is the “morphological formation or modification of the player’s body based on their anthropometric variables” (Gómez et al., 17). Its objective is essentially to properly prepare the body for the high-intensity stresses of the sport (Gómez et al., 17).

Finally, specific-quality CT involves breaking down the training of a sport into specific “work-areas”; these “work-areas” are individual skills that an individual may train without training the whole (Gómez et al., 18).

There are four types of exercises involved in a training routine (Gómez et al., 20). These exercise types consist of fundamental exercises, complementary exercises, compensatory exercises, and finally application exercises (Gómez et al., 20). Fundamental exercises are multi-joint and almost always involve movement of the entire body (Gómez et al., 20). Complementary exercises work “secondary muscle groups as part of a technical action” (Gómez et al., 20). Compensatory exercises are designed to build muscles that correct “asymmetries and imbalances” and are created with the anatomy of the athlete in mind (Gómez et al., 20). Application exercises are exercises designed to reproduce the exact motions of a technical exercise within the sport in question and can include decision-making exercises as well (Gómez et al., 20).

Gómez, Antonio, et al. “Training in Team Sports: Coadjuvant Training in the FCB.” Apunts Educación Física y Deportes, no. 138, 2019, pp. 13–25., doi:10.5672/

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